Baptism - New World Encyclopedia
On the road to Emmaus, the resurrected Jesus net two disciples who were despondent over his death. They had lost hope, believing that Jesus "was the one to redeem Israel" Luke Jesus proceeded to explain from the scriptures the significance of his suffering and death, and then shared a meal with them, at which point they recognized who he was. In another scene he permitted the doubting disciple Thomas to physically touch him John Finally, Jesus said farewell—telling them to wait in Jerusalem until the Holy Spirit comes upon them, commanding them to tell all people what he had taught and to baptize them in the name of the Father, the Son and the Spirit.
Then he ascended into heaven Matt. Jesus' resurrection was the signal event in Christianity. It was Jesus' triumph over death and proof that he is the Christ—the Son of God. It also signaled that by abiding in Christ, believers can likewise triumph over death, and overcome any painful and difficult situation. No oppressor or earthly power can defeat the power of God's love manifest in Christ. The resurrection of the crucified Christ overturned all the conventional calculations of power and expediency. As Paul wrote,. We preach Christ crucified, a stumbling-block to Jews and folly to Gentiles, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God Fifty days later, at Pentecost , while the disciples waited in an upper room, the Spirit descends onto them:.
And suddenly there was a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
Acts Peter's speech to the multitude, which followed, establishes the kerygma proclamation, or basic message of what the primitive church believed about Jesus; he had been approved of God by miracles and signs, he had been crucified by wicked men but had risen in glory.
Jesus is alive and seated at God's right hand, as both Lord and Messiah. Those who believe in his name, and accept baptism, will be cleansed of all sins and receive the Holy Spirit Acts Christians also believe that Jesus will return to earth before the Day of Judgment. The doctrine of the Second Coming attests to the unfinished quality of Jesus work, where salvation and the Kingdom are spiritually present but yet to be manifest in their fullness—in the fullness of time.
Scholars such as Howard Marshall, Bruce Metzger and Thomas Wright defend the traditional view of Jesus as God's Son, as well as that he was self-conscious of his identity and mission as the messiah. Jesus Seminar members are typical of those who think that all such notions were borrowed from paganism. Neither Borg nor Crossan think that Jesus saw himself as messiah, or as son of God, regarding these titles as later Christian additions. According to such thinkers, miracles, Jesus' foreknowledge of his own fate, his self-consciousness as divine, the resurrection and ascension, were all pious additions.
Much of what Jesus said was back-projected onto his lips to support Christian theology. Another tendency in contemporary biblical scholarship is to see Jesus as a loyal but reformist Jew , who made no messianic claims but instead was a teacher and prophet. Many black people have been so alienated by that Jesus that they have repudiated Christianity. James Cone argued that Jesus was actually black, and that to be a true follower of Jesus all people—white as well as black—need to identify with the black experience of oppression and powerlessness.
If Jesus did not think he was the messiah, certainly others did. It was this that led to his death sentence, as the title "King of the Jews" was affixed to his cross. The revolutionary and political implications of the Jewish title "Messiah" are not lost by some scholars, who see it as the key to understanding Jesus' life and fate. They reject the views of the Jesus Seminar as tainted with liberal bias.
Christianity is based on the human experience of salvation and rebirth, an outpouring of grace that can come from nowhere else but God. From the standpoint of faith , Jesus must be divine.
Jefferson's Religious Beliefs
Christology is the attempt by the church to explain who Jesus was from the standpoint of faith, as a human being who manifest divinity both in life and in death. The Nicene Creed C. The Trinity consists of God the Father, who is un-created and eternal; of God the Son, who is eternally begotten of the Father; and of God the Spirit, who proceeds eternally from the Father and some add from the Son, the filoque clause inserted at the Council of Toledo in The Son became human in Jesus.
He was also, therefore, wholly human.
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His human and divine natures were united yet without confusion. His mother, Mary , was a virgin. Jesus was wholly God but not the whole of God. He was of the same substance as the Father. He entered the world for human salvation. He was crucified under Pontius Pilate, died, rose again, descended into hell, and ascended into heaven.
He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead. All will be raised up in order to be judged. These dogmas were not universally accepted. Some groups, including the Copts of Egypt, teach that Jesus had only one nature, which was divine. The docetics and authors of various Gnostic texts said that Jesus was entirely a spiritual being; he only appeared to be human. The followers of Marcion d. Others took the opposite tack, stressing Jesus' humanity.
Objects and goals
Others taught that Jesus was an ordinary man, whom God adopted perhaps at his baptism as his son. The earliest Jewish Christians, who later became known as Ebionites , saw Jesus as a good Jew who never intended to establish a separate religion. Their Jesus pointed towards God but did not claim to be God.
Discussion and debate on all these doctrinal issues continues within Christian theology. Rather, they expressed the Christian conviction that God had acted and spoken through Jesus, who enjoyed an intimate relationship with God, and whose life and death connected them to God in a way that renewed their lives, overcame sin and set them on a new path of love, service and spiritual health. Christians today might choose different language.
An Asian appreciation of the divinity and humanity of Christ sees in Jesus' sorrows an image of the sorrows and pain of God himself. Japanese theologian Kazoh Kitamori describes the "Pain of God" as encompassing: 1 the pain God feels over man's sin, 2 the suffering God shared by assuming Christ and taking on the pains of human life, and 3 the suffering God experienced when his only Son was tortured and killed.
Conversely, by helping people in their suffering , we help to alleviate the suffering of God and Christ, for "Whatever you did to the least of these, you did for Me" Matt. According to mainstream Islam , Jesus Isa in the Qur'an was one of God's highest ranked and most beloved prophets, ranked among the righteous.
He was sent specifically to guide the Children of Israel see Q He was neither God nor the son of God, but rather a human prophet , one of many prophets sent over history to guide mankind. Jesus' message to mankind was originally the same as all of the other prophets, from Adam to Muhammad , but has been distorted by those who claim to be its adherents Q The Qur'an also calls him Al-Masih messiah , but the meaning of this is vague and carries little significance. Christians are said to exaggerate Jesus' importance, committing excess in their religion. Jesus is not nor did he claim to be one of the trinity Q , although the Qur'an appears to describe a trinity of Father, mother Mary and Son Q Jesus was born miraculously without a human biological father by the will of God Q His mother, Mary Maryam in Arabic , is among the most saintly , pious, chaste, and virtuous women ever.
The Qur'an mentions, among other miracles, that he raised the dead, restored sight to the blind and cured lepers.
He also made clay bird fly Q Jesus renounced all worldly possessions and lived a life of strict non violence , abstaining from eating meat and also from drinking alcohol. Jalal al-Din Rumi d. However, Muslims hold that the New Testament we have today has been altered and does not accurately represent the original.
Some Muslims accept the Gospel of Barnabas as the most accurate testament of Jesus. Muslims attribute this to Barnabas, who parted company from Saint Paul in Acts Almost all non-Muslim scholars regard this text as a medieval production, and thus not an authentic text. As mentioned above, Jesus was neither killed nor crucified, but God made it appear so to his enemies Q Some Muslim scholars notably Ahmad Deedat maintain that Jesus was indeed put up on the cross, but did not die on it. He was revived and then ascended bodily to heaven, while others say that it was actually Judas who was mistakenly crucified by the Romans.
Thus, the Qur'an does say that Jesus will die but most Muslims regard this as a future event, after his return.
Muslims believe in the Second Coming. Jesus is alive in heaven and will return to Earth in the flesh with Imam Mahdi to defeat the dajjal the anti-Christ in Islamic belief , once the world has become filled with injustice. Many Muslims think that Jesus will then marry , have children, and die a natural death. Judaism does not see Jesus as a messiah and also rejects the Muslim belief that Jesus was a prophet. Religious Jews are still awaiting the coming of the messiah a notable exception concerns many members of the Chabad Lubavitch, who view their last Rebbe as being the messiah.
As for the historical personality of Jesus, Judaism has fewer objections to quotes attributed to him than they do with subsequent confessions by early Christian adherents, Paul in particular. His ethical teachings in particular are viewed as largely in agreement with the best of rabbinic thought. While the New Testament sets Jesus over against the Jews in arguments over matters of doctrine and law , Jewish scholars see these as debates within the Judaism of his time. For example, the gospel writers' accounts of Jesus healing on the Sabbath Luke , Matt.
Some Jewish scholars believe that Jesus is mentioned as Yeshu in the Jewish Talmud , usually in ridicule and as a mesith enticer of Jews away from the truth , although other scholars dispute this. Joseph Klausner, a prominent Israeli scholar, was vigorous in asserting the Judaism of Jesus. Christian efforts to convert Jews based upon so-called proofs of Jesus' messiahship, such as found in the gospel of Matthew, are completely ineffective in convincing Jews, because they do not share the Christian presuppositions about the meaning of the concept "messiah.
Some distinguished Hindus have written on Jesus.
Most regard him as a manifestation of God but not as the only one—Jesus is one among many. See Vivekananda , who depicted Jesus as a jibanmukti , one who had gained liberation while still alive and love for the service of others. Some point to similarities between Jesus and Krishna see Bennett , Mahatma Gandhi greatly admired Jesus but was disappointed by Christians, who failed to practice what they preach.
Hindu scholars are less interested in the historicity of Jesus. Many items exist that are purported to be authentic relics of Jesus. The most famous alleged relics of Jesus are the Shroud of Turin , said to be the burial shroud used to wrap his body; the Sudarium of Oviedo, which is claimed to be the cloth which was used to cover his face; and the Holy Grail , which is said to have been used to collect his blood during his crucifixion and possibly used at the Last Supper.
Many modern Christians, however, do not accept any of these as true relics. Indeed, this skepticism has been around for centuries, with Desiderius Erasmus joking that so much wood formed pieces of the "True Cross" displayed as relics in the cathedrals of Europe that Jesus must have been crucified on a whole forest. Jesus has been portrayed in countless paintings and sculptures throughout the Middle Ages , Renaissance , and modern times. Often he is portrayed as looking like a male from the region of the artist creating the portrait.
According to historians, forensic scientists and genetics experts, he was most likely a bronze-skinned man—resembling a modern-day man of Middle Eastern descent. Jesus has been featured in many films and media forms, sometimes seriously, and other times satirically. Many of these portrayals have attracted controversy, either when they were intended to be based on genuine Biblical accounts such as Mel Gibson's film The Passion of the Christ and Pier Pasolini's The Gospel According to St.
In this film, Jesus is tempted to step down from the cross, to marry and have children.